The hottest three networks integration into the de

2022-08-13
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Three convergence has entered the deep-water stage, and TV + broadband will be the last straw of cable

1. The wavering broadband service

is about to close at the end of the year. Usually, at this time, the year-end summary of 2015 will start, the acceptance and acceptance of the project will start, the assessment and evaluation will also start, and the budget of 2016 should be totaled. Whether it's a summary or a budget, the next inevitable step is the planning of strategy and business plan. How to do it next year? What for? All should be added up

for more than a decade, there has been a magic spell haunting cable TV operators, that is broadband

do you want to do broadband? How? Without qualification and export, how to strive for it? How to earn money, whether or not? These problems have been hovering in the hearts of cable TV people

the atm/ip dispute is accompanied by a long-standing discussion on access technology. It's not that EOC and cm just have a little taste of sharing the country. Now, in the context of optical City, we have to improve the incoming bandwidth, that is, the upgrade of 100m. Is it the upgrade of cm2.0 to cm3.0, the downward movement of EOC optical nodes, or direct optical fiber incoming? Where does the increased cost of upgrading come from and who will pay?. It seems that we will never see the end of the argument. Although there is no optimal technology, only the most suitable technology can guide us to learn by doing, it really needs to spend real money to start implementation, and we have to waver

therefore, more than ten years have passed, and the leaders of radio and television have also changed several terms. But today, there are few broadband billing users with more than one million in cable Province, and the total number of broadband billing users in the country is less than 15million, and the penetration rate of more than 20% is by no means only. In contrast, IPTV users in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Hebei, Xinjiang and other provinces even account for more than one-third of cable TV users. However, cable TV broadband users account for less than one third of IPTV users. Should we be sad or sigh

why is it so difficult? In short, let's take a look at it with you:

2 let's review the three integration promotion plan

notice of the general office of the State Council on printing and distributing the three integration promotion plan this year: GBF [2015] No. 65

promoting the three integration is a major decision made by the Party Central Committee and the State Council

in recent years, all regions and relevant departments have seriously implemented [who is this talking about, of course, the General Administration, the Ministry of industry and information technology, local bureaus, local units, and the so-called relevant units, you must know]

the State Council's work deployment on promoting the three integration overall plan and the pilot plan, and all tasks in the pilot phase have been basically completed [said the first and second phases]

on the basis of summarizing the pilot experience, accelerate the comprehensive promotion of "Three Integrations" throughout the country, and promote the interconnection and resource sharing of information network infrastructure [whether interconnection and resource sharing are available, whether resources are shared? Progress needs to be further], which is conducive to promoting consumption upgrading, industrial transformation and people's livelihood improvement

all regions and relevant departments should fully understand the significance of comprehensively promoting the "Three Integrations", practically strengthen organizational leadership, implement work, improve working mechanism, and carry out work in a down-to-earth manner to ensure the completion of various objectives and tasks in the promotion stage [this objective and task needless to say, we all know, it is a quick reference point that needs to be done, don't you think so]

the office of the three integration work coordination group of the State Council should work with relevant departments to strengthen guidance, coordination, follow-up and supervision [how to follow up and implement, of course, is to issue documents], constantly improve relevant policies and solve problems encountered in the promotion work in a timely manner. All relevant departments should further strengthen coordination and cooperation, form a joint force and jointly promote all work. [do you think this paragraph is empty talk or cliche, of course, it is meaningful]

[task]

1. Promote the two-way entry and license approval of radio and television and telecommunications businesses nationwide. (filing)

2. Accelerate the docking of IPTV integrated broadcast control platform and IPTV transmission system. (this is mentioned every year, why not do it? The understanding is not in place. Obviously, it is not. Interests play a mischief, and there are some drivers of inaction)

broadcasting and telecommunications services enter in both directions. The fact is that iptv/ott is now almost three-way with cable users everywhere, and the content is almost homogeneous. Because cable broadband missed the opportunity, it is much worse: low price, poor reputation (game users dare not access), how to give up, Obviously impossible

[reason]

with the accumulation of telecommunications enterprises for many years, IDC has accumulated to a certain extent. At present, the high threshold of broadband access is difficult to overcome, just like the current fixed line for cable, it is also difficult for heaven. Whether it is export settlement, content resources, or the construction of IP address and bone stem, we need to strive to catch up

3 helplessness in broadband top-level design

let's first take a look at an article on the Internet backbone (Internet backbone provi many a/d conversion chips are made of this principle, der, IBP), mainly refers to national Internet service providers (ISPs), that is, Internet service providers with backbone nationwide, It includes the first level backbone (Tier1 ISP) and the second level backbone (tier2 ISP). These backbones are state approved interconnections that can be directly connected with foreign countries. If other ISPs with access function want to connect to foreign countries, they have to go through the backbone

the international general interconnection mode is the mode of interconnection and exchange of information, which is called the interconnection mode between interconnections. According to the different ways of information exchange between the two sides of the interconnection, the interconnection methods between the interconnection can be divided into two kinds: one is peering, the other is asymmetric interconnection (transit)

the rules or methods for the payment of fees by both parties to the Internet are called inter Internet settlement mode. There are roughly two modes of interconnection settlement between interconnects: one is the free settlement mode, that is, the caller retains all income (ska) or issues an invoice but does not charge (bill and keep); The second is the settlement mode

most of the traffic on the Internet is transmitted between users and stations. Generally speaking, the traffic from the user to the station is relatively small (that is, the request requiring the station to transmit content), while the traffic from the station to the user is large (the content provided by the station). This means that in many cases, the initiator of traffic exchange only uses a small part of the total traffic, while the station only provides services, which is the source of most traffic. Internet operators can't provide a unified information service. The basic unit of network information transmission is the so-called packet. Operators can't accurately distinguish who is the beneficiary from the packets they transmit. Therefore, they can't determine the value of the transmitted data, and they can't meet the prerequisites for adopting the traditional telecommunications settlement system. In addition, most applications on the Internet are asymmetric

1. Peering

according to the ska agreement, the two sides of peer-to-peer interconnection do not need to settle. The premise of peer-to-peer interconnection is that the interests of both sides are equal, which can save cumbersome traffic records and costs. Both parties of peer-to-peer interconnection must meet certain conditions of peer-to-peer interconnection. Measuring the network scale requires considering such factors as geographical coverage, capacity, business flow and the number of users. It is a completely mutually beneficial business behavior for both parties to reach a peer-to-peer interconnection agreement on the basis of balanced interests

peer-to-peer interconnection can be further divided into two forms according to different physical connection methods: one is publicpeering; The second is privatepeering. The former refers to the peer-to-peer interconnection between multiple networks, and the backbone operators sign and abide by multilateral agreements. This kind of interconnection usually occurs at public switching points. The latter refers to the peer-to-peer interconnection between the two networks, and the two backbone operators sign and abide by bilateral agreements. This kind of interconnection can be realized either at the public switching point or by the direct connection of two operators through their own circuits

2. Asymmetric interconnection (transit)

in this mode, one backbone pays to the other backbone for interconnection, and the strength of the two sides is very different. On the one hand, small ISPs cannot and do not need to establish a full connection, on the other hand, large ISPs have enough routes to meet the needs of small ISPs, which is common between superior ISPs and subordinate ISPs, and between foreign interconnection and domestic interconnection. The party providing the service has the obligation to open all routes to the other party, that is, the service is completely penetrated, and can enter other backbones through the transfer party. This is a typical business relationship between providers and users. Users (usually smaller network operators) pay transfer interconnection fees to providers (usually larger network operators) to purchase services and realize access to other interconnections

3. Partialpeering

partial peer-to-peer interconnection refers to that one ISP uses only part of its own network to establish peer-to-peer interconnection with the other ISP. Both parties only need to have a considerable network size and strength in the geographical location area of open routing. It is applicable to the situation that one ISP has established a connection in other regions and needs to establish a connection in a specific region. It often exists between the second level backbone or between the second level backbone and the first level backbone, and the application is relatively flexible. This method is popular in South America and Europe

4. Paidpeering

because there are many different types of ISPs in Europe, the peer-to-peer interconnection with settlement is often used, that is, the bilateralsettlement mode. In this mode, the physical connection cost is shared in the settlement, but the flow difference between the two needs to be calculated through agreement, and pricing is given at the same time, and one party will pay the corresponding fees to the other party according to the flow difference. The two sides of the Internet are permitted to provide supplier user relations, and the networks are customer relations with each other. The settlement mode of paid peer-to-peer interconnection mostly refers to the settlement mode of asymmetric interconnection. The rate between two ISPs depends on the scale of both parties (the measurement standards include the number of users, traffic, backbone capacity, geographical coverage and the number of content stations, etc.). The rate is lower than that of asymmetric interconnection. The interconnection fee is mainly used to compensate the cost of large enterprises (rather than form large and high profits)

5. Partialtransit

partial asymmetric interconnection refers to that ISPs that provide asymmetric interconnection only transfer traffic to specific directions. This connection method is mainly used in South America. Its tariff formulation also follows the general asymmetric interconnection mode. It is applicable to the situation that there is a big gap between the two parties who establish the interconnection in terms of network scale, traffic, etc. the ISP providing the service does not open all routes or the ISP receiving the service has established some connections and only needs some special connections. The ISP can freely choose its own routing structure

well, now we can summarize the interconnection mode of the interconnection backbone. In Internet, there are many modes of interconnection between interconnection backbones, which can be distinguished according to four different dimensions:

(1) according to different physical connection modes, it can be divided into direct interconnection and interconnection through switching center

(2) according to the different ways of exchanging information between the two sides of the interconnection, then output and print various required experimental curves and experimental reports, which can be divided into non penetrating interconnection and penetrating interconnection

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